Henri-Philippe Pétain (1856-1951) was a World War I French general who was later imprisoned for treason. A 58-year-old colonel at the start of battle in 1914, Pétain earned acclaim for stopping the Germans at the Battle of Verdun and assumed command of the French forces in 1917. He held a series of top military posts in subsequent years, becoming chief of state after Germany’s invasion in 1940. In his pursuit of a “National Revival,” Pétain collaborated with the Nazi regime and adopted repressive measures against Jews. Tried for his actions at the end of World War II, Pétain was sentenced to death before his sentence was commuted to life imprisonment.