Kent State Incident
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Introduction

In the wake of the February 14 mass shooting at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida—during which 17 people were killed and more than a dozen injured—students at that high school and across the United States have been galvanized into action. A number of protests are now planned, including nationwide school walkouts on March 14 and April 20 and a march in Washington, D.C., on March 24. These events are but the latest in a long history of student protests. Whether fighting for equality, an end to war, religious freedom, economic opportunity or political ideology, students have recognized there’s power in numbers. Most protests have been peaceful; however, in many cases students put their lives on the line for their voices to be heard.

Students erecting a statue called the Goddess of Democracy in Beijing's Tianamen Square. (Credit: Jacques Langevin/Sygma/Sygma via Getty Images)
Students erecting a statue called the Goddess of Democracy in Beijing’s Tianamen Square. (Credit: Jacques Langevin/Sygma/Sygma via Getty Images)

On April 18, 1989, after the funeral of communist leader Hu Yaobang, thousands of students marched in Tiananmen Square in Beijing, China, to protest the oppressive communist government. The protests continued as students called for strikes and class boycotts.

A few weeks later, on May 13, students began a hunger strike in Tiananmen Square insisting the government begin dialogue with them. Within a few days, the number of strikers had reached over one thousand. On May 19, a rally for political and economic change drew over 1.2 million demonstrators, most of them university students. The Chinese government imposed martial law on May 20 but to no avail.

Then, on June 4, Chinese police and troops opened fire on and beat the protestors. Chaos ensued as panicked demonstrators rushed to escape. Early the next morning, tanks arrived on the scene and plowed through any remaining dissenters. By 5:40 a.m., the protest was over.

No official death toll was ever released but some Western reporters estimated thousands may have been killed and up to 10,000 arrested. The brutal attack brought attention to the democratic movement in China and caused the United States to impose sanctions on the communist state for violating human rights.

Kent State University student hurling a tear gas cannister back towards National Guardsmen as the military is called out May 4th to put down massive anti-war protest. (Credit: Bettmann Archive/Getty Images)
Kent State University student hurling a tear gas cannister back towards National Guardsmen as the military is called out May 4th to put down massive anti-war protest. (Credit: Bettmann Archive/Getty Images)

By 1970, Americans were deeply divided over the Vietnam War. Antiwar protests were common and intensified as the number of casualties increased and U.S. troops invaded Cambodia.

On May 1, students at Kent State University in Ohio began a protest against the war. They attacked police officers with bottles and rocks, broke windows and looted stores. A state of emergency was declared, and the Ohio National Guard was dispatched to keep peace. When they arrived the night of May 2, the university’s ROTC building was on fire. As angry protestors made it hard for firefighters to extinguish the flames, the National Guard used tear gas to clear the area.

At an antiwar rally the next day, protestors and the National Guard clashed again. When the guards sprayed tear gas into the crowd, some protestors defended themselves with rocks and whatever else they could find. Some of the guards then opened fire, killing four people and wounding nine. Kent State University and colleges across the country closed in fear of more violence.

Willi Graf, Christoph Probst, Hans Scholl and Sophie Scholl of the White Rose Society. (Credit: ullstein bild/Getty Images)
Willi Graf, Christoph Probst, Hans Scholl and Sophie Scholl of the White Rose Society. (Credit: ullstein bild/Getty Images)

In 1942, during the height of Nazi rule, students from the University of Munich formed a non-violent resistance group called the White Rose. Led by Willi Graf, Christoph Probst, Alex Schmorell, Hans Scholl, Sophie Scholl and their philosophy professor Kurt Huber, the group launched an anti-Nazi leaflet campaign to inform Germans of Nazi atrocities and encourage them to passively resist the regime.

The White Rose wrote six leaflets and made copies using a hand-cranked duplicating machine. The copies were mailed to other students and professors and discreetly distributed at the University of Munich and other universities throughout Germany.

The luck of the White Rose Society ran out on February 18, 1943 when Sophie and Hans were taken into custody by the Gestapo. Eventually, all five White Rose leaders were tried and executed. But they died knowing their courageous actions had put at least a dent in the Nazi propaganda machine.

The Velvet Revolution. (Credit: Peter Turnley/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images)
The Velvet Revolution. (Credit: Peter Turnley/Corbis/VCG via Getty Images)

As Mikhail Gorbachev transformed the Soviet Union’s government in the 1980s, communist Czechoslovakia continued to firmly control its citizens and punish government dissidents, even after the fall of the Berlin Wall.

On November 17, 1989 a student march marking International Students Day turned into an anti-communism rally. The peaceful marchers were attacked by riot police and 167 of them were hospitalized.

Rather than squelch the student movement, the attack further united the protestors and much of the country against the government’s tyranny. Students, actors and theaters went on strike and massive demonstrations took place in Prague and other cities. The next day, 75 percent of the nation went on a two-hour strike.

On November 28, the Communist Party relinquished power. In June, free elections were held for the first time in the new Czech Republic. The smooth, peaceful transformation earned the uprising the name, “Velvet Revolution.”

Pro-democracy protesters holding umbrellas in front of police during clashes on a street in Mong Kok on October 19, 2014 in Hong Kong. (Credit: Chris McGrath/Getty Images)
Pro-democracy protesters holding umbrellas in front of police during clashes on a street in Mong Kok on October 19, 2014 in Hong Kong. (Credit: Chris McGrath/Getty Images)

Hong Kong’s “Umbrella Revolution” began on September 22, 2014, as thousands of students—most wearing a yellow ribbon—boycotted classes in support of full democratic elections and descended on the campus of the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

As the protests gained momentum, hundreds of thousands of Hong Kong citizens joined in. Over the next several weeks, marchers forced streets, banks and other businesses to close. During the demonstrations, police often used pepper spray and tear gas to control and disperse crowds. The protestors stood firm, however, and opened their umbrellas to protect them from the dangerous mists, turning the umbrella into a powerful symbol of their struggle.

The often-violent protests lasted almost three months and eventually fizzled out without the protestors’ demand for universal suffrage being met. Still, the movement inspired an unprecedented interest in democracy and political activism within Hong Kong.

High-school students in Soweto, South Africa, protesting for better education, 1976. (Credit: Bongani Mnguni/City Press/Gallo Images/Getty Images)
High-school students in Soweto, South Africa, protesting for better education, 1976. (Credit: Bongani Mnguni/City Press/Gallo Images/Getty Images)

On June 16, 1976, thousands of high school students in Soweto, South Africa, protested peacefully against apartheid and the Bantu Education Act, which severely limited educational opportunities to black students and decreased education quality.

As the students headed towards a soccer stadium, police tried to disperse them with tear gas and warning gunshots. When that didn’t work, they opened fire, killing two students and injuring hundreds.

The shootings triggered a massive uprising in Soweto. Security forces brought in armored tanks under orders to restore law and order. As the revolt spread across South Africa, it exposed the brutality of South Africa’s regime to the world and emboldened the anti-apartheid movement.

Holocaust Resistance: The White Rose: A Lesson in Dissent. Jewish Virtual Library.
Hong Kong’s Umbrella Movement: A Timeline of Key Events One Year On. Australian Broadcasting Corporation.
Hong Kong’s ‘Umbrella Revolution’ Opens Wide. USA Today.
Kent State Shootings. Ohio History Central.
Soweto Student Uprising. Michigan State University: Overcoming Apartheid.
The White Rose. Holocaust Research Project.
Tiananmen Square Fast Facts. CNN.
Tiananmen Square Protests of 1969. New World Encyclopedia.
The June 16 Soweto Youth Uprising. SAHO.
The Velvet Revolution: A Peaceful End to Communism in Czechoslovakia. Tavaana.