Joseph E. Johnston (1807-1891) was a U.S. military officer who served as a Confederate general during the Civil War (1861-65). A veteran of the Mexican-American War (1846-48), Johnston entered the Civil War as one of the South’s senior officers and was appointed a full general. He won an early victory at the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) in July 1861, but was later criticized for being quick to retreat during the early stages of the Peninsula Campaign in the spring of 1862. Johnston was severely wounded at the Battle of Seven Pines in June 1862, and was subsequently replaced by Robert E. Lee. He later commanded Confederate forces in the Western Theater, where he clashed with President Jefferson Davis over his cautious strategy during the Vicksburg and Atlanta Campaigns. Johnston surrendered to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina in April 1865. After the war he worked as a railroad executive and insurance agent, and served a term in the U.S. Congress. He died in 1891 at the age of 84.